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Activity Pattern, Behavioural Activity and Interspecific Interaction of Smooth-Coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) in National Chambal Sanctuary, India
Syed Ainul Hussain
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2013,
Abstract: Pages 5 - 17 (Report)The activity pattern, behavioural activity and interspecific interactions of smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) with crocodilians viz. gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) and mugger (Crocodylus palustris) was examined by monitoring four radio-implanted otters in the National Chambal Sanctuary, India. Based on the percentage of active telemetry recordings, the observed overall activity patterns of otters were in the form of a bimodal curve in which two periods of high activity were separated by a period of relative inactivity. In summer, the relative period of inactivity was greater than the winter and monsoons. Otters were more diurnal during winter than in summer or monsoon. Travelling and grooming were the most prevalent activities recorded during 422 sightings. Though the habitats and the diet of otters overlapped with gharial and mugger, their diurnal activity pattern was different and spatially they maintained a mutually agreeable strategy to avoid conflicts in sharing resources for basking and grooming.
A REVIEW ON GENETIC STATUS OF ELD’S DEER RUCERVUS ELDII: WITH NOTES ON DISTRIBUTION, POPULATION STATUS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
Sangeeta Angom,Syed Ainul Hussain
Octa Journal of Environmental Research , 2013,
Abstract: The Eld’s deer Rucervus eldii once distributed throughout Southeast Asia extending from northeast India to Indochina and southern China is now confined to small fragmented areas. Four subspecies were identified; R. e. eldii in Manipur, India, R. e. thamin in central plains of Myanmar and western Thailand R. e. siamensis in Lao PDR and in the northern and eastern Cambodia and a fourth subspecies R. e. hainanus in Hainan’s Island China. The review revealed few molecular investigations have been conducted on the genetics of Eld’s deer based on karyotype analysis, mtDNA and microsatellites. Studies based on mtDNA control region have shown that population of R. e. eldii showed closest relationship with R. e. thamin than to R. e. siamensis. Microsatellites studies are limited to R. e. hainanus; the genetic variability was low suggesting that founder effects and genetic drift have affected the population. There still remain many knowledge gaps in the systematic and genetic status of this species. The population of Eld’s deer suggested ≈2165 individuals by 2003 spreading over nine reserves. Population sizes of most subspecies of Eld’s deer are small and threatened due to effects of inbreeding depression, loss of genetic variability and drift. Environmental fluctuations due to variation in predation, competition, disease, poaching, habitat deterioration and natural catastrophes are some of the other reasons affecting the population. In future, more research is required to determine the genetic population structure on the basis of markers, variable enough to detect differences between the subspecies. An extensive study is required to assess the relatedness and kinships among captive and wild population so that changes in genetic variability could be identified and appropriate conservation measures are taken. Genetic monitoring of both the source and reintroduced populations should be done prior to reintroduction in order to assess effectiveness of conservation program.
Hydrological characteristics and flood plain vegetation of human impacted wetlands: A case study from Okhla Bird Sanctuary, National Capital Region, India
Upma Manral,Angshuman Raha,Ridhima Solanki,Syed Ainul Hussain
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Yamuna River has been subjected to severe anthropogenic pressures such as water abstraction, discharge of wastewater, development activities on river floodplains, deforestation in the river basin resulting in reduced flow, loss of habitat, deterioration of water quality and loss of biological diversity. We studied hydrological characteristics such as river flow, water depth and quality and floodplain vegetation characteristics of Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS), a human modified floodplain wetland formed due to the construction of Okhla barrage across the Yamuna River in National Capital Region (NCR), on the Delhi-Uttar Pradesh border. The flow data for Yamuna was collected from Delhi Jal board and irrigation department of Uttar Pradesh. Study indicates reduced flow in the river downstream Wazirabad with no release of water in the summers of 2006 and 2010. For bathymetry, GARMIN 160 C Fish Finder was used after dividing study area into 50 m x 50 m grids. About 65% area had depth less than 2 m indicating more of shallower areas. Results for water quality analysis show a dissolved oxygen level at 1.6 ± 0.84 mgl-1, Biological and Chemical Oxygen demand at 16.72 ± 4.28 mgl-1 and 39.8 ± 7.71 mgl-1 respectively, indicating a high organic load in the river. The Sanctuary is facing serious threats from the rapid proliferation of Typha angustifolia and Eichhornia crassipes which were dominant species in shallow water and open water habitats, respectively. Thus, the remaining Yamuna river flood plain in the NCR, Delhi should be declared as ecologically sensitive area and appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its integrity.
Biology and Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815): A Review
Syed Ainul Hussain,Sandeep Kumar Gupta,Padma Kumari de Silva
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2011,
Abstract: The Asian small-clawed otter is the smallest among the 13 extant species of otters. It has a large distribution range extending from India in South Asia through Southeast Asia up to Taiwan and Philippines in the east and Southern China in the north. It is considered ‘Vulnerable’ due to habitat loss and degradation, depletion of prey species and exploitation. Being adapted to live in shallow streams and water bodies, they are more vulnerable to modification of these habitats by anthropogenic as well as climate change impacts. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge on the biology and ecology of this little known species. Over the years, the IUCN SSC Otter Specialist Group has developed a cadre of biologist across Asia to conduct field surveys and has popularized otter conservation by promoting otter as the ambassador of wetlands. However, concerted effort is needed for its long-term survival. Policy based action, research on factors affecting survival, habitat-based actions on creation and where required expansion of protected areas and communication and awareness building among local communities are suggested.
External frame distraction osteogenesis of the midface in the cleft patient
Hussain Syed
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2009,
Abstract: Distraction osteogenesis has established itself as an accepted form of treatment in the management of midface deficiency in cleft patients. However, it is well known that some amount of relapse is inevitable in patients who undergo this procedure. Like most surgical techniques, it has its specific indications, limitations, and complications. The problems are amplified in some patients because of severe fibrosis resulting from previous palate and lip operations. This article reviews treatment planning, pre- and postoperative orthodontic management, operative technique, and mechanics of distraction. It also discusses long-term changes following distraction and protocols to optimize the results and minimize complications.
MNMU-RA: Most Nearest Most Used Routing Algorithm for Greening the Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Hafiz Bilal Khalil, Syed Jawad Hussain Zaidi
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.46023
Abstract: Wireless sensors are widely deployed in military and other organizations that significantly depend upon the sensed information in any emergency situation. One of the main designs issues of the wireless sensor network (WSN) is the conservation of energy which is directly proportional to the life of the networks. We propose most nearest most used routing algorithm (MNMU-RA) for ad-hoc WSNs which vitally plays an important role in energy conservation. We find the best location of MNMU node for energy harvesting by apply our algorithm. Our method involves the least number of nodes in transmission of data and set large number of nodes to sleep in idle mode. Based on simulation result we shows the significant improvement in energy saving and enhance the life of the network.
Optical and gas sensing studies of transparent ZnO thin film deposited from a new precursor by ultrasonic aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition
Muzammil Hussain,Syed Tajammul Hussain
European Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.5155/eurjchem.1.2.96-101.49
Abstract: Transparent semi-conducting ZnO thin films with low resistivity and high transmittance in the visible optical region were deposited by the decomposition of bis(2,4-pentanedionate)-bis(aminoethanol) zinc(II) under an atmosphere of oxygen on ceramic, metal and quartz substrates by ultrasonic aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition. The precursor was synthesized from bis(2,4-pentanedionate) zinc(II) and aminoethanol by sonication in acetonitrile and was characterized by melting point, infrared spectroscopy, CHNS-O elemental, atomic absorption, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. TGA-FTIR was used to identify the cause of the weight losses and evolved gases formed during the breakup of the molecules. Electrical and optical measurements showed that the ZnO film has a band gap of 3.02 eV and typical semiconductor properties with a resistivity that depends on the thickness of the film. Powder XRD, SEM and EDX show that films are uniform, smooth and crystalline in nature, giving particle sizes in the range of 30-60 nm and exhibit a (002) orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface.
The Intraday Behaviour of Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Evidence from DAX30
Syed Mujahid Hussain
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v3n1p23
Abstract: This paper undertakes a fresh empirical investigation of key financial market variables and the theories that link them. We employ high frequency 5-minute data that include transaction price, trading volume, and the close bid and ask quote for the period May 5, 2004 through September 29, 2005. We document a number of regularities in the pattern of intraday return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spreads. We are able to confirm the reverse J-shaped pattern of intraday bid-ask spreads with the exception of a major bump following the intraday auction at 13:05 CET. The aggregate trading volume exhibits L-shaped pattern for the German blue chip index, while German index volatility displays a somewhat reverse J-shaped pattern with two major bumps at 14:30 and 15:30 CET. Our empirical findings show that contemporaneous and lagged trading volume and bid-ask spreads have numerically small but statistically significant effect on return volatility. Our results also indicate asymmetry in the effects of volume on conditional volatility. However, inclusion of both measures as proxy for informal arrival in the conditional volatility equation does not explain the well known volatility persistence in intraday stock returns.
ANAL FISSURE
SYED MUKARRUM HUSSAIN
The Professional Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Objectives: To compare role of topicalglycerol trinitrate Ointment with lateral internal sphincterotomy. Setting: Department of Surgery CMH Kohat & PAFHospital Karachi. Period: From Mar 2003 to August 2004. Patients & Methods: Sixty patients suffering from chronicanal fissure were selected and equally divided into two groups. Group A was managed by topical glycerol trinitrate(GTN) ointment and group B was treated by internal sphincterotomy. Patients were followed up in the out-patientdepartment fortnightly. Results: Eight weeks after treatment, 66.6% patients in group A and 86.5% patients in groupB had healed fissures. Complications seen in group A were headache 9(30%), anal horny sensation 4(13.3%) andperianal soiling 2(6.7%) patients. In group B complications included infection 2(6.7%), soiling of under clothes 5(16.7%)and flatus incontinence 4(13.2%)patients. Conclusions: Although topical GTN ointment is non-invasive therapy withno permanent complications, it achieves low healing rates as compared to lateral internal sphincterotomy.
ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF MIDAZOLAM
Syed Millat Hussain
The Professional Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: 24 children aged 5-10 years scheduled for day care anaesthesia were given midazolam 30-60 minutes beforesurgery. Similar number of children were give placebo and the anxiolytic effect of the drug was noted. Itwas seen that the recovery time was considerably increased.
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