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Foraging ecology of Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus Johnii) in Parimbikulam Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India
Debahutee Roy,M. Ashokkumar,Ajay A Desai
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: We studied the foraging ecology of Trachypithecus johnii from December 2011 to march 2012 in Parambikulam tiger reserve, kerala, India.We collected phenology of food plant species and food consumed by langurs living in two habitats. Feeding records showed that Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii) feeds on 97 species of plants belonging to 44 families. The food plants species composed of trees, shrubs and climbers which were constituted 78, 6, and 7 species respectively. Among the different plant categories trees accounts for 83.87%, followed by climber 7.53%, shrub 6.45%, herb 1.08% and grass 1.08%. Thus trees and shrub were constituted about 90% of overall composition of food plant species. Food plant species composed of 44 different families, in which Fabaceae was constituted by 16 species with greatest percent (16%), followed by Euphorbiaceae (8 sp.) Moraceae (5sp.) and other families represented less than 3% .The diet species of Nilgiri Langurr was compared with other areas and discussed.
Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Activities for Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Cynodon dactylon in Balb/c mice
K. M. Saradha Devi,S. Annapoorani,Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v3n3p182
Abstract: The immunomodulatory properties of ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon have been investigated in experimental animal as Balb/c mice. In this present study, Balb/c male mice of 5-7 weeks old (20-25g) were maintained under standard laboratory conditions (temperature 25 ± 2°C) with dark/light cycle (14/10h). The mice were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 15 days before the commencement of the experiments. The mice were divided into two groups and each group containing 6 mice. The present investigation has revealed that pyrogallol at 50 mg/kg body weight, produced significant impairment of humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses. It was observed that daily treatment of 70ul of ethyl acetate fraction of Cynodon dactylon 34.3ug polyphenols significantly prevented the immunosuppression caused by pyrogallol. This result suggested that the immunomodulatory effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Cynodon dactylon can be screened by the method in which the immunosuppression was induced by pyrogallol. Hence, we expect that ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extracts of Cynodon dactylon has strong utility in clinical practice as an effective immunostimulant.
Homology modeling and structure prediction of thioredoxin (TRX) protein in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
M. Prabhavathi 1 , K. Ashokkumar 2* , N. Geetha 1 , K.M. Saradha Devi 3
International Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Wheat is an important dietary cereal often associated with beneficial health effects. A study was carried out to investigate the in silico analysis of homology modeling and 3D structure prediction of Thioredoxin (TRX) protein in Triticum aestivum. Primary structure prediction and physicochemical characterization were performed by computing theoretical isoelectric point (pI), molecular weight, total number of positive and negative residues, extinction coefficient, instability index, aliphatic index and grand average hydropathy (GRAVY). In this study homology modeling, a high quality of protein 3D structure has been predicted for the hypothetical amino acid sequence. Thioredoxin of Triticum aestivum was compared to the 1XFL solution structure of Thioredoxin h1 from Arabidopsis thaliana predicted structure through ROSETTA. However, the quality of the homology model performed through SWISS-MODEL depended on the quality of the sequence alignment by BLAST and template structure. Comparative assessment of secondary structure modeled using GOR IV, HNN and SOPMA revealed greater percentage of residues as alpha helix and random coils against the beta sheets. Structure comparison by VAST for the ROSETTA modeled structure indicated no hits for the entire sequence unlike that of SWISS modeled structure, which indicated 60 structure neighbours for the entire residues. Tertiary structure was predicted using homology modeling by taking template PDB-1fxl and the modeled protein energy were minimized. The models were validated using protein structure checking tools PROCHECK. These structures will provide a good foundation for functional analysis of experimentally derived crystal structures.
Evaluation of polyphenylene ether ether sulfone/nanohydroxyapatite nanofiber composite as a biomaterial for hard tissue replacement
Manickam Ashokkumar and Dharmalingam Sangeetha
Progress in Biomaterials , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2194-0517-2-2
Abstract: The present work is aimed at investigating the mechanical and in vitro biological properties of polyphenylene ether ether sulfone (PPEES)/nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite fibers. Electrospinning was used to prepare nanofiber composite mats of PPEES/nHA with different weight percentages of the inorganic filler, nHA. The fabricated composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. The mechanical properties of the composite were studied with a tensile tester. The FTIR-ATR spectrum depicted the functional group as well as the interaction between the PPEES and nHA composite materials; in addition, the elemental groups were identified with EDX analysis. The morphology of the nanofiber composite was studied by SEM. Tensile strength analysis of the PPEES/nHA composite revealed the elastic nature of the nanofiber composite reinforced with nHA and suggested significant mechanical strength of the composite. The biomineralization studies performed using simulated body fluid with increased incubation time showed enhanced mineralization, which showed that the composites possessed high bioactivity property. Cell viability of the nanofiber composite, studied with osteoblast (MG-63) cells, was observed to be higher in the composites containing higher concentrations of nHA.
An Effect Of Girl Students Interest In Science, Study Habits And School Adjustment On Academic Achievement In Science
Ashokkumar B. Surapur
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to analyse independent and combined effects of variables viz., Interest in science (higher and lower), Study habits (good and poor) and School Adjustment (high and low) on Academic achievement in Science. The sample of the present study includes 300 students selected randomly from IXth Standard studying science subject. The study revealed that, (i) The Girl students with higher interest in science have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Girl students with lower interest; (ii) The Girl students with higher interest and good Study habits have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Girl students with lower interest and poor Study habits; and (iii) The Girl students with higher Interest, good Study habits and high School Adjustment have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Girl students with lower Interest, poor Study habits and low school Adjustment.
A Study Of Impact Of Government School Students Interest In Science, Study Habits And School Adjustment On Academic Achievement In Science.
Ashokkumar B. Surapur
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to analyse independent and combined effects of variables viz., Interest in science (higher and lower), Study habits (good and poor) and School Adjustment (high and low) on Academic achievement in Science. The sample of the present study includes 300 students selected randomly from IXth Standard studying science subject. The study revealed that, (i) The Government School students with higher Interest in science have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Government School students with lower Interest in science; (ii) The Government School students with higher Interest in science and high School adjustment have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Government School students with higher Interest in science and low School adjustment; (iii) The Government School students with good Study habits and low School adjustment have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Government School students with poor Study habits and low School adjustment.
ROLE OF EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT IN WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT.
ASHOKKUMAR B. SURARPUR
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: In ancient India women enjoyed an equal status and had equal educational opportunities with men. Both boys and girls used to under go a ceremony of upanayana in vedic days to study Vedas. Atharvaveda emphasized the importance of education of women for a successful marriage and happy home. It was only in mediaeval India that Political and social transformation lowered the status of women and consequently their participation in educational activities. Society had built a prejudice against women's education and girls received little education at home
THE LEARNING COMMUNITY AND TEACHING STRATEGIES
ASHOKKUMAR . B . SURAPUR
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: In recent years, many studies have shown that the most important variable in student success is a well – prepared and capable teacher . In the 21st century we are preparing children and young people for a future world that we don't yet know, for jobs that don't yet exist and for a life that may be very different to today's way of living. Teachers choose to be teachers because they believe they can make a difference. Pupils achievement in different subject areas is commonly considered to assess quality of education at any level. The kinds of students entering higher education as a consequence of widening participation efforts are more likely to not complete individual modules, and more likely to not continue studying, even if they complete modules. Some of this 'dropout' is appropriate and involves students discovering that they are poorly prepared for higher education, that even first year undergraduate study is at too high a level for them, or, most frequently, that they have selected an inappropriate course (see Yorke, 1999). These students are also much more likely to be facing financial hardship and other home or work difficulties that are outside the control of the institution. However the loss of funding associated with this worsening student retention is obliging institutions to allocate additional resources and efforts to attempt to retain these students, even in the face of existing resource constraints. There is much clearer evidence than previously of the implications of widening participation being taken forward through study skills support, student support systems, changed teaching and assessment and even changed curricula. Some institutions display a level of 'joined up' thinking and planning, linking access to teaching and learning, that was not previously evident.Children are given the opportunity to work collaboratively and share responsibility for completing tasks and achieving outcomes. Learning collaboratively is motivating to many children. We are all social beings and collaboration is a natural activity. We talk, share ideas, help, support, challenges and motivate each other without consciously thinking about it. Movement towards competency standards in teaching promises to bring together two parallel programmes of reform- school improvement and skills formation. The first of these, school improvement, has a history as long as the history of schooling. In recent decades, proposals for school improvement have led to changes in curriculum content, materials and structure; assessment; architecture; and government of schools.
Morphological Diversity and per se Performance in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar,Rajasekaran Ravikesavan
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v3n2p107
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to find out the morphological diversity and per se performance of yield component traits, yield and a fibre quality traits eleven genotypes (four G. hirsutum cultivars viz., MCU 5, MCU 12, SURABHI and SVPR 2 and seven G. hirsutum genetic accessions viz., F 776, F 1861, SOCC 11, SOCC 17, TCH 1641, TCH 1644 and TCH 1646) during kharif 2005-06. Morphological traits of each genotype were measured on five randomly chosen plants in each replication. Significant differences were recorded for all the fourteen traits observed. The cultivar MCU 12 produced maximum yield (95.33 gm/plant) due to more number of sympodia (24.17/ plant), number of bolls (25.17/plant), boll weight (4.20 g), ginning outturn (35.43 %), lint index (6.12 g) and seed index (10.44 g). Among the eleven genetic accessions, most of them expressed lowest value in yield and quality traits except SOCC17 superior in micronaire (4.60?g/inch-1), SOCC11superior in fibre elongation (9.60 %) and TCH 1641 had high number of sympodia (28.97/plant) and number of seeds per boll (32). The cultivar SURABHI possess significantly more number of bolls (26.47/ plant), high ginning outturn (36.24 %), 2.5% span length (32.90 mm) and bundle strength(22.9 g/tex-1). The morphological traits data were used for assessing genetic diversity in the 11 cotton genotypes. NTSYS software was used to determine the genetic similarities and construct a dendrogram. The matrix of average taxonomic distance was estimated using Euclidian distance. The average taxonomic distance ranged from 0.1 to 1.4. At a Euclidean distance of 0.8, the 11 genotypes were grouped into IV clusters at 0.43% similarity level. Among the different clusters, the cluster size varied from one to four genotypes. The maximum number of genotypes was included in cluster I (four genotypes) and the minimum number in cluster II having only one genotype. The cluster III & IV each had three genotypes. The analysis of variance revealed significant divergences among all the genotypes for all characters. In future, greater morphological diversity shown among the genotypes can be used to generate potential and promising hybrids.
Knockout of the folate transporter folt-1 causes germline and somatic defects in C. elegans
Misa U Austin, Wei-Siang Liau, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar, Hamid M Said, Craig W LaMunyon
BMC Developmental Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-213x-10-46
Abstract: Our results show that folt-1(ok1460) knockout hermaphrodites have a substantially reduced germline, generate a small number of functional sperm, and only rarely produce a functional oocyte. We found no evidence of increased apoptosis in the germline of folt-1 knockout mutants, suggesting that germline proliferation is defective. While folt-1 knockout males are fertile, their rate of spermatogenesis was severely diminished, and the males were very poor maters. The mating defect is likely due to compromised metabolism and/or other somatic functions, as folt-1 knockout hermaphrodites displayed a shortened lifespan and elongated defecation intervals.The FOLT-1 protein function affects both the soma and the germline. folt-1(ok1460) hermaphrodites suffer severely diminished lifespan and germline defects that result in sterility. Germline defects associated with folate deficiency appear widespread in animals, being found in humans, mice, fruit flies, and here, nematodes.Folate, a member of the B-class of water-soluble vitamins, plays a major role in one-carbon-metabolism that produces nucleotides and several amino acids including methionine [1-3]. Methionine is a substrate for DNA methylation [4], which is an important regulatory mechanism for gene expression during development [5]. Folate is therefore critical to DNA and its expression, but mammals and other multicellular eukaryotes are devoid of the cellular machinery to synthesize folate [6] and must instead rely on active uptake from dietary sources. At the cellular level, three different systems are responsible for folate uptake: the folate receptors [7], the reduced folate carrier (RFC) [8], and the proton coupled folate transporter (PCFT) [9]. The reduced folate carrier is a major folate transport system in mammalian cells and plays an important role in cell growth and development [10].Folate deficiency, particularly during embryogenesis, can result in a number of developmental defects. In humans, the defects includ
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