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Changes in the Seminiferous Epithelium of the Testes during Postnatal Development in Assam Goat
Kamal Sarma,J. Devi
Anatomy Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/620924
Abstract: The present work is conducted to elucidate the postnatal development of the seminiferous epithelium of the testes of the Assam goats from 0 day to 10 months of age. A total of eighteen Assam goats divided into six age groups, namely, group-I (0-day), group-II (2 months), group-III (4 months), group-IV (6 months), group-V (8 months), and group-VI (10 months), consisting of 3 animals in each group were used in this study. The seminiferous tubules did not have lumina up to the age of 2 months, hence called the sex cords, and these contained centrally placed gonocytes and peripherally located sustentacular cells. Initiation of spermatogenesis started in 4-month old kids. Luminization process was completed by 6 months of age with all the seminiferous tubuyes having well-developed lumina at this age. These seminiferous tubules contained all the spermatogenic cells of the adult testis. Onset of puberty was observed to be established at 6 months of age in the Assam goats as evidenced by presence of spermatozoa adhering to the adluminal border of the Sertoli cells as well as in the tubular lumen. The histomorphology of various cells of the seminiferous epithelium has been described. 1. Introduction India possesses 122.92 millions of goats of which 29.06 lacs are found in Assam [1]. Goat rearing has tremendous potential in the northeastern states particularly among the small and marginal farmers and landless laborers because of very low initial investment and adequate financial returns. More than 85 percent of the population in this region is nonvegetarian, and chevon is preferred by all as it has no religious taboo. Postnatal anatomical studies on the male genital system at various ages, particularly the testis and its tubular system, are important to know the anatomical growth and development. A few anatomical studies on testes are reported in goats, namely, biometry of the testes in the Sirohi goats [2], testicular measurements in the Assam local X Beetal goats [3], and testicular growth in the British Saanen, Alpine, and Toggenburg breeds of bucks [4]. Some works were also conducted in other ruminants elucidating morphology and biometry of the testes such as buffalo [5] and rams [6]. This study is the first report for the postnatal development of the seminiferous epithelium in the Assam goat. 2. Materials and Methods A total of 18 male Assam goats varying in age from 0-day to 10 months were used in the present study. The animals were divided into six age groups, namely group-I (0-day), group-II (2 months), group-III (4 months), group-IV (6 months), group-V (8
Prevalence and risk factors for colonisation with extended spectrum β-lactamase producing enterobacteriacae vis-à-vis usage of antimicrobials
Sarma J,Ahmed G
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: A point prevalence study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Assam to determine the prevalence, sensitivity profile and risk factors for acquisition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing enterobacteriacae vis- -vis amount and pattern of antibiotic use. Materials and Methods: ESBL was detected by double disc synergy method. Defined daily dose and bed-days were calculated. Result: Colonisation rate of ESBL producing enterobacteriacae ranged from 14% (n=73) in medicine to the highest 41% (n=29) in orthopaedic with an intermediate 23% (n=80) in surgery. Presence of ESBL was found to be strongly associated with resistance to specific classes of antimicrobials. Exposure to cefotaxime and gentamicin, and surgery were risk factors for acquiring ESBL producing enterobacteriacae. Non-ESBL producing community isolates were found to be considerably more sensitive to different antibiotics with no resistance detected to trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides. Conclusion: The study confirms the role of certain ′high risk′ antimicrobials in acquisition of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae and shows that periodic cohort studies could be an effective strategy in surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals of resource poor countries to inform antibiotic policy and treatment guidelines.
Characterisation of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains and risk factors for acquisition in a teaching hospital in northeast India
Sarma J,Ahmed G
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: A point prevalence study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Assam to characterise S. aureus strains, establish the rate of colonisation of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and associated risk factors for its acquisition. Materials and Methods: Antibiogram-Resistogram profile was done by BSAC standardized disc sensitivity method; Phage and RFLP typing were carried out by the PHLS, London. Results: Single MRSA strain resistant to multiple classes of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics dominated the hospital. The MRSA colonisation rate was found to be 34% (n=29) and 18% (n=80) in orthopaedics and surgery, respectively and only ~1% (n=73) in the medical units. Exposure to ciprofloxacin and surgery were risk factors but duration of hospital stay was not. In contrast, meticillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were usually distinct strains and sensitive to most of the anti-staphylococcal antibiotics including 18% to penicillin. Conclusions: The MRSA strain prevalent in the hospital phenotypically resembles the predominant Asian strain viz., Brazilian/Hungarian strains (CC8-MRSA-III). Duration was not a risk factor, which suggests that in absence of exposure to specific antimicrobials, even in a hospital with no or little infection control intervention, a vast majority remain free from MRSA. This underlines the importance of rational prescribing empirical antibiotics.
Infection control with limited resources: Why and how to make it possible?
Sarma J,Ahmed G
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: The risk of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in developing countries can exceed 25% compared to developed countries. Lack of awareness and institutional framework to deal with patient safety in general and HCAI in particular perpetuates the culture of acceptance of avoidable risks as inevitable. Most HCAIs are avoidable and can be prevented by relatively simple means. It is no longer acceptable to put patients at risk of avoidable infections. The World Health Organization (WHO)-led World Alliance for Patient Safety launched a worldwide campaign on patient safety focusing on simple means like hand hygiene to combat HCAIs. To drive necessary changes to deliver sustainable improvement in clinical care requires strategic approach and clinical leadership. This article reviews the scale of the problem, the WHO recommended interventions and improvement strategies in institutional setup in developing and transitional countries.
Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of 40 Cases  [PDF]
Anupam Sarma, Rajjyoti Das, J. D. Sharma, A. C. Kataki
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.36137
Abstract: Spindle cell carcinoma of head and neck, a subtype of squamous cell carcinoma is a unique and rare neoplasm. It has a more aggressive behavior as compared to classical squomous cell carcinoma warranting surgical interventions with wider surgical margins. Immunohistochemistry along with routine histopathology is essential in establishing the diagnosis of spindle cell carcinoma. We at Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, a regional institute for treatment and research, hereby report 40 cases of such lesion with clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. Out of total 40 cases included in the study group most of the cases were in the age group of 40 to 60 years. Commonest site of presentation was nasopharynx and buccal mucosa. 14 cases of the oral cavity (buccal mucosa, alveolus, oral tongue and hard palate) were treated with surgery. All the cases with disease of the larynx and hypopharynx were treated with radiotherapy and cases involving the nasopharynx received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the surgery group recurrence rate was found to be 71.4% and metastasis rate was 21.4%. Biopsy specimens were subjected to histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis show concurrent presence of malignant epithelial and sarcomatoid spindle cell components by co-expression of cytokeratin (CK) and vimentin to various degrees.
Solution of non-singlet DGLAP evolution equation in leading order and next-to-leading order at small-x by method of characteristics
Baishya, R.;Sarma, J. K.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: The non-singlet structure functions have been obtained by solving Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations in leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) at the small-x limit. Here a Taylor series expansion has been used and then the method of characteristics has been applied to solve the evolution equations. Results are comopared with the Fermilab experiment E665 data and New Muon Collaboration (NMC) data.
Method of characteristics and solution of DGLAP evolution equation in leading order (LO) and next to leading order (NLO) at small-x
Baishya, R.;Sarma, J. K.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.74.107702
Abstract: In this paper the singlet and non-singlet structure functions have been obtained by solving Dokshitzer, Gribove, Lipatov, Alterelli, Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations in leading order (LO) and next to leading order (NLO) at the small x limit. Here we have used a Taylor Series expansion and then the method of characteristics to solve the evolution equations. We have also calculated t and x-evolutions of deuteron structure function and the results are compared with the New Muon Collaboration (NMC) data.
Regge behaviour of structure functions and solution of Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi Evolution equations in next-to-leading order at low-x
Jamil, U.;Sarma, J. K.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: Deuteron and proton structure functions are derived from Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations of singlet and non-singlet structure functions in next-to-leading order (NLO) at low-x assuming the Regge behaviour of singlet and non-singlet structure functions at this limit and results are compared with New Muon Collaboration (NMC) and E665 collaboration data sets.
A GIS based study on bank erosion by the river Brahmaputra around Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India
J. N. Sarma,S. Acharjee
Earth System Dynamics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/esdd-3-1085-2012
Abstract: The Kaziranga National Park is a forest-edged riverine grassland inhabited by the world's largest population of one-horned rhinoceroses, as well as a wide diversity of animals. The park is situated on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River at the foot of the Mikir Hills. National Highway 37 forms the southern boundary and the northern boundary is the river Brahmaputra and covers an area of about 430 km2. The Brahmaputra River flows by Kaziranga National Park in a braided course for about 53 km. Sequential changes in the position of banklines of the river due to consistent bank erosion have been studied from Survey of India topographic maps of 1912–1916 and 1972, satellite IRS LISS III images from 1998 to 2008 using GIS. Study of bank line shift due to the bank erosion around Kaziranga has been carried out for the periods 1912–1916 to 1972, 1972 to 1998 and 1998 to 2008. The amounts of the bank area lost due to erosion and gained due to sediment deposition are estimated separately. The total area eroded during 1912–1916 to 1972 was more (84.87 km2) as compared to accretion due to sediment deposition (24.49 km2), the total area eroded was also more in 1972–1998 (44.769 km2) as compared to accretion (29.47 km2) and the total area eroded was again more in 1998–2008 (20.41 km2) as compared to accretion (7.89 km2). The rates of erosion during 1912–1916 to 1970, 1970 to 1998, and 1998 to 2008 were 1.46, 1.59 and 1.021 km2 per year, respectively. During the entire period (1912–1916 to 2008) of study the erosion on the whole was 150.04 km2 and overall accretion was 61.86 km2 resulting in a loss of 88.188 km2 area of the park. The maximum amounts of shift of the bankline during 1912–1916 to 1970, 1970 to 1998, and 1998 to 2008 were 4.58 km, 3.36 km, and 1.92 km, respectively, which amount to the rates of shift as 0.078, 0.12 and 0.096 km per year, respectively. A lineament and a few faults have controlled the trend of the course of the Brahmaputra around Kaziranga area. The main cause of erosion of the Brahmaputra is the loose non-cohesive sediments of the bank throughout the park. The braided channel of the river strikes the bank directly and undermines the silty bank causing overhanging blocks to be carried away easily by the river current. In future deposition is likely to be more in upstream or eastern part of Kaziranga and erosion in middle part of Kaziranga national park area due to the river Brahmaputra. Antierosion measures have been adopted only in a few places to check bank erosion at Kaziranga.
Spin relaxation of conduction electrons in polyvalent metals: A realistic calculation
J. Fabian,S. Das Sarma
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5624
Abstract: Relaxation of electronic spins in metals is significantly enhanced whenever a Fermi surface crosses Brillouin zone boundaries, special symmetry points, or lines of accidental degeneracy. A realistic calculation shows that if aluminum had one valence electron, its spin relaxation would be slower by nearly two orders of magnitude. This not only solves a longstanding experimental puzzle, but also provides a way of tailoring spin dynamics of electrons in a conduction band.
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