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Conservation advocacy increases protections for Critically Endangered Pacific Leatherback sea turtles
Christopher Pincetich,Ming Ong,Todd Steiner
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Leatherback sea turtles, the most unique of the seven species of sea turtles, are critically endangered and being pushed toward extinction in the Pacific Ocean. The crash of the Pacific leatherback population is the result of human exploitation and incidental take by commercial fisheries compounded by ongoing loss and degradation of nesting habitats. The Sea Turtle Restoration Project (STRP) is a nonprofit project with over twenty years of actions focused on saving sea turtles and protecting marine biodiversity. STRP advocacy work combines public outreach and engagement for local and international issues with strategic litigation to establish protections for Pacific leatherbacks and their essential habitat. Successes include the closure and implementation of new restrictions on the Hawaiian longline fishery, the creation of the Leatherback Conservation Area which closes the drift gillnet fishery over 210,000 square miles during leatherback foraging season, and the establishment of the largest area of marine critical habitat ever designated for a sea turtle. STRP will continue to support cooperation among fishermen, local community members, national organizations and law enforcement officers around the globe to protect leatherbacks. Global cooperation is required to reduce the many threats to sea turtles and to ensure the survival and recovery of their populations.
What Role Can Propinquity Play in the Development of New National Allegiances? Immigrant Latinos Establishing Ties to the United States through Out-Group Contact  [PDF]
Christopher Olds
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.21002
Abstract: Contact theory has primarily been applied to the study of interactions between Blacks and Whites, with particular emphasis on changes in the attitudes of Whites towards Blacks. How individual contact with an out-group can influence not just attitudes, but also actual behavior, has not been thoroughly explored. Through an analysis of the 2006 Latino National Survey, using a measure that contrasts the intensity of individual social interaction with various ethnic and racial groups, the study shows that a high intensity of friendly social contact with African-Americans increases the likelihood Latino immigrants will establish a closer link to the social and political structures of the United States. Latino immigrants are potentially experiencing movement towards deprovincialization through high levels of friendly social interaction with African-Americans. The development of friendly personal interactions with an out-group stigmatized in the mother country can help Latino immigrants develop an optimistic view of life in the host country.
Net primary production and carbon cycling in coast redwood forests of central California  [PDF]
Christopher Potter
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2012.23018
Abstract: A simulation model to estimate net primary productivity (NPP) has been combined with in situ measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and leaf litter pools in three coast redwood forest stands on the central California coast. Monthly NPP was predicted from the CASA model using 250-meter resolution vegetation index (VI) inputs. Annual NPP was predicted to vary from 380 g·C·m-2·yr-1 to 648 g·C·m-2·yr-1 at central coast redwood sites over the years 2007 to 2010. Measured soil respiration rates at between 0.5 to 2.2 g·C·m-2·d-1 were slightly below the range of measurements previously reported for a second-growth mixed (redwood and Douglas-fir) conifer forests. Although warm monthly temperatures at the southern-most redwood forest sites evidently results in elevated stress levels to sustained redwood growth into the dry summer months of June and July, these redwood stands appear to sequester CO2 from that atmosphere into forest biomass for a net positive ecosystem carbon balance each year.
Ten Years of Vegetation Change in Northern California Marshlands Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis  [PDF]
Christopher Potter
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.55048
Abstract:

The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detect changes in perennial vegetation cover at marshland sites in Northern California reported to have undergone restoration between 1999 and 2009. Results showed extensive contiguous areas of restored marshland plant cover at 10 of the 14 sites selected. Gains in either woody shrub cover and/or from a recovery of herbaceous cover that remains productive and evergreen on a year round basis could be mapped out from the image results. However, LEDAPS may not be highly sensitive changes in wetlands that have been restored mainly with seasonal herbaceous cover (e.g., vernal pools), due to the ephemeral nature of the plant greenness signal. Based on this evaluation, the LEDAPS methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in marshland ecosystems of the Pacific Flyway.

Ex Post Efficient Set Mathematics  [PDF]
Christopher Adcock
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.31A019
Abstract:

This paper considers efficient set mathematics for the case where the covariance matrix of asset returns is assumed known but ex ante the vector of expected returns is replaced by an estimated or forecast value. It is shown that the ex post mean and variance differ from the standard results. Consequently the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio also differs from the standard result. However, even with uncertainty about the vector of expected returns, subject to the assumptions made about the joint distribution of actual returns and estimated mean returns, ex post Sharpe ratio maximisers hold the ex post market portfolio. The properties of the zero beta portfolio are similar to the standard results leading to a capital market line. The ex post Capital Asset Pricing Model incorporates an intercept and the betas are not the same as those computed ex ante. The results are illustrated with an example.

 

Mortality and motivations: Clinicians’ integrity engaging death within complex cultural context  [PDF]
Christopher Jenner
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.31011
Abstract:

This broad ranging discussion examines the clinical encounter and deconstructs psychological and cultural context and implications, finally honoring the comprehensive awareness that the clinician requires for best practice in encountering mortality. Clinicians engage client disease and dying presentions, and ultimate mortality. Communicating mortality openly or subliminally is not always conscious. Mortality awareness can produce stress and untoward behaviors. Psychological mortality avoidance, citing Kierke-gaard’s existential paradox, and the death (in both senses) of Joseph Campbell’s cultural hero illumine socio-cultural elements including the elusive “good death”, sequestration of death from society, and the concept of managing death in volume. Cultural diversity awareness and the concept of transcendence clarify outlier and hybrid cultural client presentations demanding maximal clinician flexibility. Mortality Salience Theory predicts contracted world view when confronted with mortality, demanding sensitivity to a variety of responses. A hospice approach may not be best for some, despite a lack of new alternative to that paradigm. Managing mortality awareness and dying stresses the clinician by the weight and loneliness of perhaps unpopular decisions, by responsibility to community in managing death, and by the take-home exposure of the clinician’s family to the concept of death and mortality. Aptitude for managing death depends on clinician self awareness and a good match with practice venue. Clinician integrity and consciousness of motives and responses allows engagement or deferral as necessary without threat to identity.

Regional Analysis of NASA Satellite Greenness Trends for Ecosystems of Arctic Alaska  [PDF]
Christopher Potter
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.59085
Abstract:

Trends in the growing season MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time-series were analyzed for the period from 2000 to 2010 to understand landscape-level patterns of vegetation change in ecosystems of arctic Alaska. We compared datasets for vegetation cover types, wetland cover classes, wildfire boundaries since the 1940s, permafrost type, and elevation to identify the most likely combination of factors driving regional changes in habitat quality and ecosystem productivity. Approximately 57% of all arctic ecosystem areas in Alaska were detected with significant (p < 0.05) positive or negative MODIS growing season EVI trends from 2000 to 2010. Nearly all (99%) of these ecosystem areas (covering 178,050 km2) were detected with significant positive growing season EVI trends. The vast majority of the arctic Alaska region detected with significant positive growing season EVI trends was classified as upland tundra cover, although non-forested wetlands (marshes, bogs, fens, and floodplains) were co-located on 8% of that area. Herbaceous wetlands were co-located on 55% of the total area detected with significant negative growing season EVI trends, mostly on the arctic coastal plain and foothills. This evidence supports the hypothesis that temperature (warming) has markedly enhanced the rates of upland tundra vegetation growth across most of arctic Alaska over recent years.

Geographic Analysis of Burn Severity for the 2013 California Rim Fire  [PDF]
Christopher Potter
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.511052
Abstract:
Analysis of Landsat imagery was applied to classify burn severity within the 2013 Rim Fire area using the relative difference normalized burn ratio (RdNBR). Results showed 53,220 ha in the High Burn Severity (HBS) class and another 34,214 ha in the Moderate Burn Severity (MBS) class. Within Yosemite National Park, 12,084 ha were detected by RdNBR analysis in the HBS class and another 11,089 ha in the MBS class. The most typical ecosystem habitat detected within the HBS class was Ponderosa pine—Mixed Conifer forest, between the elevations of 1000 and 2000 meters or on slopes between 5 and 30 percent. Most of the HBS areas were located in areas where high levels of pre-fire fuels were quantified by 2013 Landsat vegetation index (NDVI) values between 500 and 800. The Low Burn Severity (LBS) class covered a higher fraction of areas where the duration since last fire (YSF) was less than 25 years, compared to the HBS class, which covered a higher fraction of areas where the YSF was greater than 60 years.
Diglossia in the Arab World
—Educational Implications and Future Perspectives
 [PDF]

Christopher Horn
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.51009
Abstract: This essay will offer an introduction to the long-debated issue of diglossia in the Arabic-speaking world, together with an overview of some of the effects it brings about within the Arab society against the background of the governing Islamic creed. After a definition of the issue, backed by the most relevant, related academic literature, a brief overview will be offered of the social setting in which this situation has perpetuated itself to this day. The author will then proceed to assess the impact of diglossia on Arab youth, nowadays, with an eye on educational concerns, and will conclude with a tentative speculation on the future of Arabic as a language, in hopes to inspire further academic endeavor.
A Case Study of Forest and Woodland Habitat Loss to Disturbance and Development in an Ex-Urban Landscape: Santa Clara County, California 1999-2009  [PDF]
Christopher Potter
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.31003
Abstract: Analysis of Landsat satellite images was applied to detect changes in forest and woodland vegetation cover in Santa Clara County, California. Results showed that 92 km2 (22,730 acres) of forests and woodlands were highly disturbed in SCC between 1999 and 2009, 37% (34 km2) of which did not overlap with any known wildland fire boundaries, and hence, were confirmed to be lost to new residential or commercial development activities. Disturbed wooded area represented about 6% of the total 1575 km2 area of all remaining forest and woodlands in SCC prior to 1999. If the majority of disturbed forest and woodland area in SCC is not allowed to regenerate naturally and remain undeveloped, then the annual rate of disturbance would be equal to annual forest loss rates of countries such as Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, and Madagascar since the year 2000. Based on this assessment, the Landsat analysis methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in forest habitats and associated wildlife corridors throughout California.
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