2017 ( 2 )

2016 ( 20 )

2015 ( 57 )

2014 ( 117 )


匹配条件: “Bilal Habib” ,找到相关结果约1781条。
The Inverted Double Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices using Electrospun TiO2 Nanofibers
Muhammad Tanveer,Amir Habib,Muhammad Bilal Khan
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: The introduction of electrospun TiO2 nanofibershas improved the performance of inverted poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6, 6)- phenyl-C61- butyric acidmethyl ester (PCBM) solar cells by providing efficient chargegeneration and collection through double heterojunction.Electrospun TiO2 nanofibers increased the charge separation andcollecting capability of the devices both from P3HT and PCBM byproviding interfaces between P3HT-TiO2 and PCBM-TiO2nanofibers. The resulting devices have reached to maximumpower conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.25±0.03% contributed byincreased short circuit current (Jsc).
Resistance to Foliage Feeding Aphid in Wheat
Naheed Akhtar,Muhammad Bilal Anwar,Ghulam Jilani,Habib Iqbal Javed
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Experimental trials were conducted at Integrated Pest Management Programme, National Agriculture Research Centre Islamabad, to evaluate the resistance of host plants (cereals) against Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). For evaluation of susceptibility, twenty varieties/-advanced lines of National Uniform Wheat Yield Trails (NUWYT) Normal (N) of year 2004-2005 were used. In seedling bulk tests varieties/advanced lines were grouped into three categories resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible. Data from seedling bulk tests showed that DN-47 and PR 87 lines of wheat were resistant to aphid as compared to the other varieties/-advanced lines. In antixenosis tests varieties/-advanced lines were grouped into three categories, least preferred, moderately preferred, highly preferred. Lines V-01180, DN-47 and PR-84 were least preferred, sixteen varieties/-advanced lines were moderately preferred and only one variety V-9021 was found to be highly preferred.
Evidences of lateral gene transfer between archaea and pathogenic bacteria
Habib Bokhari,Maryam Anwar,Hasan Bilal Mirza,Patrick Martin Gillevet
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: Acquisition of new genetic material through horizontal gene transfer has been shown to be an important feature in the evolution of many pathogenic bacteria. Changes in the genetic repertoire, occurring through gene acquisition and deletion, are the major events underlying the emergence and evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, horizontal gene transfer across the domains i.e. archaea and bacteria is not so common. In this context, we explore events of horizontal gene transfer between archaea and bacteria. In order to determine whether the acquisition of archaeal genes by lateral gene transfer is an important feature in the evolutionary history of the pathogenic bacteria, we have developed a scheme of stepwise eliminations that identifies archaeal-like genes in various bacterial genomes. We report the presence of 9 genes of archaeal origin in the genomes of various bacteria, a subset of which is also unique to the pathogenic members and are not found in respective non-pathogenic counterparts. We believe that these genes, having been retained in the respective genomes through selective advantage, have key functions in the organism’s biology and may play a role in pathogenesis.
Etiology of acute renal failure in a tertiary center
Rabbani Malik,Habib Haseeb,Siddiqui Bilal,Tahir M
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2008,
Abstract: Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs commonly in developing countries. Our aim was to assess the etiologies and outcomes of ARF in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan and compare them with data from developed and developing countries. All patients admitted to the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from January 1991 to December 2000 fulfilling the criteria of acute renal failure were reviewed retrospectively. Acute renal failure for the purpose of this study was defined as persistent elevation of serum creatinine to above 2 mg/dL (177 umol/L) on two consecu-tive occasions despite correction of any abnormal hemodynamic or mechanical factors. We studied 898 patients fulfilling the criteria of ARF, 61% (551) were males, and the mean age was 53% ± 17.6 (range 15-91) years. Medical causes accounted for (88%) of ARF cases and surgical causes for (11%). Majority of the patients had pre-renal ARF, and 5% had drug related ARF. The base line creatinine was 1.9 ± 1.8 mg/dL, while 27% of the patients had pre-existing chronic kidney disease. The mean rise in creatinine was 7.18 ± 3.8 mg/dL. We conclude that ARF resulted from pre-renal etiologies in majority of the patients and early recognition and management may improve the prognosis of these potentially preventable causes.
An assessment of abundance, habitat use and activity patterns of three sympatric pheasants in an Eastern Himalayan Lowland tropical Forest of Arunachal Pradesh, India
K. Muthamizh Selvan,Salvador Lyngdoh,Gopi Govindan Veeraswami,Bilal Habib
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot is rich in pheasant diversity, as eleven of the seventeen pheasant species in India occur here. Despite the richness, these pheasants have been least studied in their natural habitats and their current population status, ecology and behavioural patterns are unknown. We estimated abundance, habitat use and activity pattern of three pheasants, i.e. Red Jungle Fowl Gallus gallus (RJF), Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos (KP) and Grey Peacock Pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum (GPP) in Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh. Data collected from line transects and camera traps were used for estimating abundance, habitat use and activity patterns. Program Oriana 4.2 was used to determine the activity pattern of three species. Questionnaire survey was conducted around the protected area to determine the conservation threats for these species. Red jungle fowl had the highest density of 12.9 individuals/km2 and a photographic rate of 3.19/100 trap nights among all the pheasants. Shrub cover, litter cover and grass cover were positively associated (p<0.001) with pheasant detections, where as disturbance (p<0.001) was negatively correlated. 60% of habitat overlap was observed between KP and RJF. Dillenia indica dominated habitats were significantly correlated with pheasants detections (R=0.34, p<.0001). The mean activity of GPP, RJF and KP were 6.30 hrs ± 3.37 hrs, 7.49 hrs ± 0.14 hrs and 8.29 hrs ± 0.18 hrs respectively. Additional studies on current status of these species and management plans are critical for pheasant conservation in this critical biodiversity hotspot.
Time-seismicity evolution and seismic risk assessment of the Arabian plate  [PDF]
Ahmad Bilal
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59126

The seismicity of the Arabian plate, which is the aim of this paper, is controlled by the ZagrosTaurus collision zone in the North, the Indian expansion zone and the Arab golf in the South and the East, the Dead Sea Fault, the North continuity of the Red Sea, and the Syrian rift, which links the rigid Arabian plate to the mobile ophiolite belt of Cyprus-Southern Turkey in the West. These major elements with their related fracture system, make the Arabian plate an important seismic centre. To attain our purpose, a variable methodology is used in: measurements of movement rate-displacement in the field, the analysis of historical and recent seismic data, and physical effects on the structures. The movement rate-displacement, calculated in the field by different specialists, varies from 2 to 6 mm/year. This rate increases from 2 - 3 mm/year in the North, to 6 mm in the South. These estimations are confirmed by historical seismic data, the recent seismic recorded by the Arab seismic centers, and physical effects on the building structures in the region. The analysis of historical and recent seismic data recorded in the seismic centre show that the seismicity in this plate, tend to fade out with time. This result is in agreement with recent estimations on the movement rate, and in line with the decrease of major seismic intensity, which has occurred during the last millennium. A conclusion of time-evolution seismicity is traced, and a seismic zoning map, for the Arabian plate, using movement rate, seismic data, and tectono-geodynamic analysis, is proposed.

Arab metallurgy owes much to meteorites iron—A special regard to Damask saber  [PDF]
Ahmad Bilal
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.62012

Ancient Arabs have recognized metallic and mineral ores, including their fluid inclusions which were still considered as a new scientific fields in the 70’s last century. They discovered metallic ores (gold, silver, copper), in inhabited areas and in delta and river crosses, using different techniques for exploration and exploitation. Metallic industry flourished during the Islamic period, silver and gold were used as currency for commercial exchanges. Meteorites were also recognized by Ancient Arabs. They collected them in the deserted areas, and used them for arms manufacturing, as sabers and daggers. The more famous of these arms is the Damask saber steel, known reputedly Jaohar. It has an extraordinary mechanical properties, and exceptional sharp cutting edge. The Jaohar blades were forged directly from fall meteorites, at temperature of 80℃, using a sophistical thermomechanical of forging, annealing to refine the steel, and giving it this exceptional quality and superelastic behavior. Meteorites using by Ancient Arabs come back to 400 years ago, as confirmed by a recent research on two meteorites samples, presented in Aleppo museum, found in Ras Shamra, and Umm El Maraa, in Syria.

Prey Preferences of the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia): Regional Diet Specificity Holds Global Significance for Conservation
Salvador Lyngdoh, Shivam Shrotriya, Surendra P. Goyal, Hayley Clements, Matthew W. Hayward, Bilal Habib
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088349
Abstract: The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36–76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.
Supply Chain Management (SCM): Its Future Implications  [PDF]
Mamun Habib
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.29040

This keynote paper represents theory of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and its future implications as well as demonstrates chronological prospective of SCM in terms of time frame in different areas of manufacturing and service industries. SCM has been widely researched in numerous application domains during the last decade. Despite the popularity of SCM research and applications, considerable confusion remains as to its meaning. There are several attempts made by researchers and practitioners to appropriately define SCM. Amidst fierce competition in all industries, SCM has gradually been embraced as a proven managerial approach to achieving sustainable profits and growth. Finally, this study demonstrates Educational Supply Chain Management, as the application of SCM in the service industry, which would unlock other applications of SCM in different arenas. Integrated Tertiary Educational Supply Chain Management (ITESCM) model would be verified through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Techniques that would describe in this paper. The ITESCM model furnishes stakeholders of the supply chain with appropriate strategies to review and appraise their performance toward fulfillment of ultimate goals, i.e. producing high-ca- liber graduates and high-impact research outcomes, which represent two main contributions, for the betterment of the society.

Dynamic Optimization of Caregiver Schedules Based on Vital Sign Streams  [PDF]
Mohamed Saad, Bilal Khan
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks (ETSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/etsn.2013.22006

Hospital facilities use a collection of heterogeneous devices, produced by many different vendors, to monitor the state of patient vital signs. The limited interoperability of current devices makes it difficult to synthesize multivariate monitoring data into a unified array of real-time information regarding the patients state. Without an infrastructure for the integrated evaluation, display, and storage of vital sign data, one cannot adequately ensure that the assignment of caregivers to patients reflects the relative urgency of patient needs. This is an especially serious issue in critical care units (CCUs). We present a formal mathematical model of an operational critical care unit, together with metrics for evaluating the systematic impact of caregiver scheduling decisions on patient care. The model is rich enough to capture the essential features of device and patient diversity, and so enables us to test the hypothesis that integration of vital sign data could realistically yield a significant positive impact on the efficacy of critical care delivery outcome. To test the hypothesis, we employ the model within a computer simulation. The simulation enables us to compare the current scheduling processes in widespread use within CCUs, against a new scheduling algorithm that makes use of an integrated array of patient information collected by an (anticipated) vital sign data integration infrastructure. The simulation study provides clear evidence that such an infrastructure reduces risk to patients and lowers operational costs, and in so doing reveals the inherent costs of medical device non-interoperability.


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