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The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal
Hem Bahadur Katuwal,Bhaiya Khanal,Khadga Basnet,Bhim Rai
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine) were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven). The highest number of mammalian fauna (18) was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11) from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral), Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis), Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.
Effects of Growing Conditions of Marigold in Ilam District, Nepal  [PDF]
Bikash Khanal
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.522354
Abstract:

Different growing conditions with temperature and sunlight variation could vary in flower growth and quality of marigold. Plant growth and flowering characteristics are compared in three different conditions viz. plastic house, shade house and open field. Three varieties of marigold viz. Marvel Yellow, Marvel Orange and Marvel Garland with similar cultural practices were grown and observed. Each variety with 6 replications was grown in three different growing conditions. Plant height, leaves formation, length of leaves, number of days to flower, number of flowers per plant and post harvest analysis were recorded. Plant growth characteristics followed by flowering behavior were found significantly better in plants grown under plastic house. During post harvest experiment Marvel Garland variety grown under plastic house with wet post harvest treatment was found significantly better compared to other conditions.

Evaluating the Impacts of Forest Clear Cutting on Water and Sediment Yields Using SWAT in Mississippi  [PDF]
Sunita Khanal, Prem B. Parajuli
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.54047
Abstract:

Forest clear cutting alters the hydrological processes such as interception, evapotranspiration and infiltration of the forested watershed and consequently increases the amount of water and sediment leaving the watershed. This study was conducted in the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW) located in east-central Mississippito evaluate and compare the potential impacts of forest clear cutting on water and sediment yields using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. For this purpose, five hypothetical scenarios representing clear cutting at 10%, 20%, 30%, 55% and 75% of the total forest area of the watershed were generated. The SWAT model was first calibrated (1981-1995) and validated (1996-2008) for monthly stream flow, and later verified (February 2010 to December 2010) for monthly sediment load. Results show that the SWAT model was able to simulate stream flow and sediment load satisfactorily during the calibration/validation and verification periods, respectively. The potential changes caused in yields as a result of the changes in clearcut area were computed by comparing predicted yields from each clear cutting scenario and a base condition. Results from five scenarios demonstrate substantial increase in yields with an increase in the percentage of forest area clearcut. When compared with the base scenario, potential changes in water and sediment yields occur between 17% to 96% and 33% to 250%, respectively, with an increase in clearcut area from 10% to 75%. Results also indicate that, for all scenarios, percentage wise change is larger for sediment yield. Although predicted water and sediment yields generated from each scenario are subject to further verification with observed data, this study provides useful information about the potential amount of water and sediment yields that may be produced under each scenario, and that the potential changes that may happen on yields if similar magnitude of clear cutting occurs in the UPRW or in similar watershed.

Sensitivity Analysis and Evaluation of Forest Biomass Production Potential Using SWAT Model  [PDF]
Sunita Khanal, Prem B. Parajuli
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2014.42013
Abstract:

Sensitivity analysis of crop parameters and the performance of SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model to simulate potential forest biomass production were evaluated for the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW). Local sensitivity analysis of seven crop parameters: radiation use efficiency (kg/ha)/(MJ/m2) (BIOE), potential maximum leaf area index for the plant (BLAI), fraction of growing season at which senescence becomes the dominant growth process (DLAI), fraction of the maximum plant leaf area index corresponding to the 1st point on the optimal leaf area development curve (LAIMX1), fraction of growing season corresponding to the 1st point on the optimal leaf area development curve (FRGRW1), plants potential maximum canopy height (m) (CHTMX), and maximum rooting depth for plant (mm) (RDMX) reveals that only three parameters: DLAI, BIOE and BLAI are sensitive to forest biomass production. Further, results indicate moderate sensitivity of DLAI and BIOE and low sensitivity of BLAI with relative sensitivity index of 0.44, 0.35 and 0.14, respectively. The performance of SWAT to simulate potential forest biomass was evaluated by comparing simulated data against three years of observed data that were obtained from USDA Forest Service website. The results indicate satisfactory performance of SWAT in predicting potential forest biomass, which is shown by the high value of coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.83), small root mean square error (RMSE = 11.11 Mg/ha), and small difference between mean. Results also reveal that the UPRW has the potential to produce approximately 49 Mg/ha of average forest biomass annually, which is approximately 6% less than the observed biomass.

Text Dependent Method for Person Identification through Voice Segment
Arif Ullah Khan,,L. P. Bhaiya
International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: language is man’s most important means of communication and speech its primary medium. Speech recognition is the ability of a computer to recognize general, naturally flowing utterances from a wide variety of users. Differences of physiological properties of the glottis and vocal tracts are partly due to age, gender and/or person differences. Since these differences are related in the speech signal, acoustic measures related to those properties can be helpful for speaker identification. Acoustic measure of voice sources were extracted from 5 utterances spoken by10 peoples including 5 male and 5 female talkers (aged 19 to 25 years old). The differences of speech long term features including zero crossing rate and short term energy for different person is studied.
Hindi Speaking Person Identification using Zero Crossing rate and Short-Term Energy
Lalit P Bhaiya,Arif Ullah Khan
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: language is man’s most important means of communication and speech its primary medium. Speech recognition is the ability of a computer to recognize general, naturally flowing utterances from a wide variety of users. Differences of physiological properties of the glottis and vocal tracts are partly due to age, gender and/or person differences. Since these differences are related in the speech signal, acoustic measures related to those properties can be helpful for speaker identification. Acoustic measure of voice sources were extracted from 5 utterances spoken by10 peoples including 5 male and 5 female talkers (aged 19 to 25 years old). The differences of speech long term features including zero crossing rate and short term energy for different person is studied.
Nepalis question the law against selling human organs
Khanal Prakash
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract:
Nepal's childhood mortality falls by half as vaccinations rise tenfold
Khanal Prakash
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract:
Knowledge and practice among the caretakers of bedridden patients on prevention of urinary tract infection
N Khanal
Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jucms.v2i1.10488
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the major complications of immobility or bedridden condition. Between 46-59% of spinal cord injury patients develop urinary tract infection during the first year of trauma. UTI is a second most common type of infection, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections and a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year. The findings of the study might be helpful to the long term care health institution for the development the strategies to involve the caretakers to prevent urinary tract infection in bedridden patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to find out the level of knowledge and current practice of caretakers of bedridden patients on prevention of urinary tract infection. METHODS: The descriptive and cross-sectional study design was adopted in this study. A self-prepared structured interview questionnaire and observation checklist was used to collect data from 30 caretakers of hospitalized bedridden patients of Nepal Orthopedic Hospital and Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Center Jorpati implying purposive & convenient sampling technique. RESULTS: Out of30 caretakers, no one had adequate (>80%) knowledge and 46.6% had moderate (50-80%) knowledge and 53.3% had low (<50%) knowledge on meaning, high risk group, contributing factors, signs & symptoms, consequences and preventive measures of UTI as a whole. Caretaker's preventive practices of UTI for their bedridden patients were not satisfactory except encourage the patient for drinking 2-3 liters water per day. CONCLUSION: Majorities (53.3%) of the caretakers of bedridden patients had low level knowledge on preventive measures of UTI. Similarly UTI preventive practices of caretakers were also not satisfactory. Therefore, awareness raising programme on preventive measures of UTI need to be organized specially for caretakers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jucms.v2i1.10488 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences (2014) Vol.2(1): 24-29
Concept of Paradigm Shift in Public Health Research
K Khanal
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v10i4.10984
Abstract: No abstract available. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v10i4.10984 Kathmandu University Medical Journal Vol.10(4) 2012: 1-2
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