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A Chain Routing Algorithm Based on Traffic Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Yi Sun, Lei Xu, Xin Wu, Minxuan Shen
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B2092
Abstract:

As a representative of chain-based protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), EEPB is an elegant solution on energy efficiency. However, in the latter part of the operation of the network, there is still a big problem: reserving energy of the node frequently presents the incapacity of directly communicating with the base station, at the same time capacity of data acquisition and transmission as normal nodes. If these nodes were selected as LEADER nodes, that will accelerate the death process and unevenness of energy consumption distribution among nodes.This paper proposed a chain routing algorithm based ontraffic prediction model (CRTP).The novel algorithmdesigns a threshold judgment method through introducing the traffic prediction model in the process of election of LEADER node. The process can be dynamically adjusted according to the flow forecasting. Therefore, this algorithm lets the energy consumption tend-ing to keep at same level. Simulation results show that CRTP has superior performance over EEPB in terms of balanced network energy consumption and the prolonged network life.

Reducing vulnerability to soft errors in sub-100 nm content addressable memory circuits
降低亚100nm CAM电路的软错误易感性

Sun Yan,Zhang Jiaxing,Zhang Minxuan,Hao Yue,
孙岩
,张甲兴,张民选,郝跃

半导体学报 , 2010,
Abstract: We first study the impacts of soft errors on various types of CAM for different feature sizes. After presenting a soft error immune CAM cell, SSB-RCAM, we propose two kinds of reliable CAM, DCF-RCAM and DCK-RCAM. In addition, we present an ignore mechanism to protect dual cell redundancy CAMs against soft errors. Experimental results indicate that the 11T-NOR CAM cell has an advantage in soft error immunity. Based on 11T-NOR, the proposed reliable CAMs reduce the SER by about 81% on average with acceptable overheads. The SER of dual cell redundancy CAMs can also be decreased using the ignore mechanism in specific applications.
Adaptive Capacity Sharing through Probabilistic Controlled Placement
Xianju Yang,Peixiang Yan,Jiang Jiang,Minxuan Zhang
Journal of Computers , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.7.5.1236-1243
Abstract: As capacity demands vary among simultaneously executed threads in chip multiprocessors, dynamically managing cache resources according to the run-time demands is effective to improve L2 cache performance. Differed from existing dynamic cache management schemes based on LRU replacement policy, we propose an adaptive capacity sharing mechanism based on a global reuse replacement policy. This mechanism adopts decoupled tag and data arrays, and partitions the data arrays into private and shared regions. Capacity sharing is accomplished by determining whether to place the incoming data into the private data region or into the shared data region, which is controlled by probabilities. Our mechanism includes: (1) A VMON monitor to predict run-time capacity demands. (2) A PCS algorithm to determine the probabilities. (3) A probabilistic controlled placement scheme to enforce capacity sharing. We evaluated our mechanism with a full system simulation of an 8-core CMP and used parallel programs from PARSEC benchmark suite. We found that with the same total L2 cache capacity, our mechanism exceeds the conventional private cache managed by LRU policy, the private cache without sharing managed by reuse replacement policy, and an existing adaptive sharing scheme based on LRU policy.
Regular FPGA based on regular fabric
基于规则化版图的FPGA设计

Chen Xun,Zhu Jianwen,Zhang Minxuan,
陈迅
,朱剑文,张民选

半导体学报 , 2011,
Abstract: In the sub-wavelength regime, design for manufacturability (DFM) becomes increasingly important for field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In this paper, an automated tile generation flow targeting micro-regular fabric is reported. Using a publicly accessible, well-documented academic FPGA as a case study, we found that compared to the tile generators previously reported, our generated micro-regular tile incurs less than 10% area overhead, which could be potentially recovered by process window optimization, thanks to its superior printability. In addition, we demonstrate that on 45 nm technology, the generated FPGA tile reduces lithography induced process variation by 33%, and reduce probability of failure by 21.2%. If a further overhead of 10% area can be recovered by enhanced resolution, we can achieve the variation reduction of 93.8% and reduce the probability of failure by 16.2%.
A low-noise PLL design achieved by optimizing the loop bandwidth
基于优化环路带宽的低噪声锁相环设计

Bai Chuang,Zhao Zhenyu,Zhang Minxuan,
白创
,赵振宇,张民选

半导体学报 , 2009,
Abstract: This paper describes a low-noise phase-locked loop (PLL) design method to achieve minimum jitter. Based on the phase noise properties extracted from the transistor, and the low-pass or high-pass transfer characteristics of different noise sources to the o
Numerical study of the sub-threshold slope in T-CNFETs
T-CNFETs中亚阈值斜率的数值研究

Zhou Hailiang,Hao Yue,Zhang Minxuan,
周海亮
,郝跃,张民选

半导体学报 , 2010,
Abstract: The most attractive merit of tunneling carbon nanotube field effect transistors (T-CNFETs) is the ultra-small inverse sub-threshold slope. In order to obtain as small an average sub-threshold slope as possible, several effective approaches have been proposed based on a numerical insight into the working mechanism of T-CNFETs: tuning the doping level of source/drain leads, minimizing the quantum capacitance value via tuning the bias condition or increasing the insulator capacitance, and adopting a staircase doping strategy in the drain lead. Non-equilibrium Green's function based simulation results show that all these approaches can contribute to a smaller average inverse sub-threshold slope, which is quite desirable in high-frequency or low-power applications.
Performance optimization of MOS-like carbon nanotube-FETs with realistic source/drain contacts based on electrostatic doping
静电掺杂对具有实际源漏接触的类MOS碳纳米管场效应管性能的改善

Zhou Hailiang,Hao Yue,Zhang Minxuan,
周海亮
,郝跃,张民选

半导体学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Due to carrier band-to-band-tunneling (BTBT) through channel-source/drain contacts, conventional MOS-like Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (C-CNFETs) suffer from ambipolar conductance, which deteriorates the device performance greatly. In order to reduce such ambipolar behavior, a novel device structure based on electrostatic doping is proposed and all kinds of source/drain contacting conditions are considered in this paper. The non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism based simulation results show that, with proper choice of tuning voltage, such electrostatic doping strategy can not only reduce the ambipolar conductance but also improve the sub-threshold performance, even with source/drain contacts being of Schottky type. And these are both quite desirable in circuit design to reduce the system power and improve the frequency as well. Further study reveals that the performance of the proposed design depends strongly on the choice of tuning voltage value, which should be paid much attention to obtain a proper trade-off between power and speed in application.
Chronic Stress Suppresses the Expression of Cutaneous Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenocortical Axis Elements and Melanogenesis
Silin Pang, Huali Wu, Qian Wang, Minxuan Cai, Weimin Shi, Jing Shang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098283
Abstract: Chronic stress can affect skin function, and some skin diseases might be triggered or aggravated by stress. Stress can activate the central hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which causes glucocorticoid levels to increase. The skin has HPA axis elements that react to environmental stressors to regulate skin functions, such as melanogenesis. This study explores the mechanism whereby chronic stress affects skin pigmentation, focusing on the HPA axis, and investigates the role of glucocorticoids in this pathway. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to two types of chronic stress, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Mice subjected to either stress condition showed reduced melanogenesis. Interestingly, CRS and CUMS triggered reductions in the mRNA expression levels of key factors involved in the HPA axis in the skin. In mice administered corticosterone, decreased melanin synthesis and reduced expression of HPA axis elements were observed. The reduced expression of HPA axis elements and melanogenesis in the skin of stressed mice were reversed by RU486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) treatment. Glucocorticoids had no significant inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in vitro. These results suggest that, high levels of serum corticosterone induced by chronic stress can reduce the expression of elements of the skin HPA axis by glucocorticoid-dependent negative feedback. These activities can eventually result in decreased skin pigmentation. Our findings raise the possibility that chronic stress could be a risk factor for depigmentation by disrupting the cutaneous HPA axis and should prompt dermatologists to exercise more caution when using glucocorticoids for treatment.
Large-Scale Phenotyping of an Accurate Genetic Mouse Model of JNCL Identifies Novel Early Pathology Outside the Central Nervous System
John F. Staropoli, Larissa Haliw, Sunita Biswas, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M. H?lter, Lore Becker, Sergej Skosyrski, Patricia Da Silva-Buttkus, Julia Calzada-Wack, Frauke Neff, Birgit Rathkolb, Jan Rozman, Anja Schrewe, Thure Adler, Oliver Puk, Minxuan Sun, Jack Favor, Ildikó Racz, Raffi Bekeredjian, Dirk H. Busch, Jochen Graw, Martin Klingenspor, Thomas Klopstock, Eckhard Wolf, Wolfgang Wurst, Andreas Zimmer, Edith Lopez, Hayat Harati, Eric Hill, Daniela S. Krause, Jolene Guide, Ella Dragileva, Evan Gale, Vanessa C. Wheeler, Rose-Mary Boustany, Diane E. Brown, Sylvie Breton, Klaus Ruether, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Susan L. Cotman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038310
Abstract: Cln3Δex7/8 mice harbor the most common genetic defect causing juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), an autosomal recessive disease involving seizures, visual, motor and cognitive decline, and premature death. Here, to more thoroughly investigate the manifestations of the common JNCL mutation, we performed a broad phenotyping study of Cln3Δex7/8 mice. Homozygous Cln3Δex7/8 mice, congenic on a C57BL/6N background, displayed subtle deficits in sensory and motor tasks at 10–14 weeks of age. Homozygous Cln3Δex7/8 mice also displayed electroretinographic changes reflecting cone function deficits past 5 months of age and a progressive decline of retinal post-receptoral function. Metabolic analysis revealed increases in rectal body temperature and minimum oxygen consumption in 12–13 week old homozygous Cln3Δex7/8mice, which were also seen to a lesser extent in heterozygous Cln3Δex7/8 mice. Heart weight was slightly increased at 20 weeks of age, but no significant differences were observed in cardiac function in young adults. In a comprehensive blood analysis at 15–16 weeks of age, serum ferritin concentrations, mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells (MCV), and reticulocyte counts were reproducibly increased in homozygous Cln3Δex7/8 mice, and male homozygotes had a relative T-cell deficiency, suggesting alterations in hematopoiesis. Finally, consistent with findings in JNCL patients, vacuolated peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in homozygous Cln3Δex7/8 neonates, and to a greater extent in older animals. Early onset, severe vacuolation in clear cells of the epididymis of male homozygous Cln3Δex7/8 mice was also observed. These data highlight additional organ systems in which to study CLN3 function, and early phenotypes have been established in homozygous Cln3Δex7/8 mice that merit further study for JNCL biomarker development.
Modeling and analysis of single-event transients in charge pumps
电荷泵中单粒子瞬变的建模与分析

Zhao Zhenyu,Li Junfeng,Zhang Minxuan,Li Shaoqing,
赵振宇
,李俊丰,张民选,李少青

半导体学报 , 2009,
Abstract: It has been shown that charge pumps(CPs)dominate singleevent transient(SET)responses of phase-locked loops(PLLs).Using a pulse to represent a single event hit on CPs,the SET analysis model is established and the characteristics of SET generation and propagation in PLLs are revealed.An analysis of single event transients in PLLs demonstrates that the settling time of the voltage-controlled oscillators(VCOs)control voltage after a single event strike is strongly dependent on the peak control voltage deviation...
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