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匹配条件: “ Evan Gale” ,找到相关结果约1486条。
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Electromagnetic radiation from nuclear collisions at RHIC energies
Simon Turbide,Charles Gale,Evan Frodermann,Ulrich Heinz
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.024909
Abstract: The hot and dense strongly interacting matter created in collisions of heavy nuclei at RHIC energies is modeled with relativistic hydrodynamics, and the spectra of real and virtual photons produced at mid-rapidity in these events are calculated. Several different sources are considered, and their relative importance is compared. Specifically, we include jet fragmentation, jet-plasma interactions, the emission of radiation from the thermal medium and from primordial hard collisions. Our calculations consistently take into account jet energy loss, as evaluated in the AMY formalism. We obtain results for the spectra, the nuclear modification factor (R_AA), and the azimuthal anisotropy (v_2) that agree with the photon measurements performed by the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC.
Photons from nuclear collisions at RHIC energies
Charles Gale,Simon Turbide,Evan Frodermann,Ulrich Heinz
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104119
Abstract: We model the hot and dense strongly interacting mater produced in high energy heavy ion collisions using relativistic hydrodynamics. Several different sources of real photons produced during these collisions are considered and their relative importance is assessed. We include contributions from QCD jets, which are allowed to loose and gain energy as they proceed through the hot matter. This is treated within the AMY formalism. We obtain photon spectra, R_{AA}, and v_2 in agreement with measurements performed by the PHENIX collaboration.
Elliptic flow of thermal photons and dileptons
Ulrich W. Heinz,Rupa Chatterjee,Evan S. Frodermann,Charles Gale,Dinesh K. Srivastava
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.11.090
Abstract: In this talk we describe the recently discovered rich phenomenology of elliptic flow of electromagnetic probes of the hot matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Using a hydrodynamic model for the space-time dynamics of the collision fireball created in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, we compute the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow of thermal photons and dileptons. These observables are shown to provide differential windows into various stages of the fireball expansion.
Beneficial Applications and Deleterious Effects of Near-Infrared from Biological and Medical Perspectives  [PDF]
Yohei Tanaka, Lisa Gale
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.34A006
Abstract:

Over half of solar energy consists of near-infrared and a wide range of preventative mechanisms have been evolutionarily maintained in organisms to protect against effects of near-infrared. However, the biological effects of near-infrared have not been investigated in detail. Despite the essential requirement of a water-filter to imitate solar near-infrared filtered by atmospheric water, previous studies used near-infrared resources without a water-filter or a cooling system. With these methods, near-infrared energy is primarily absorbed in the superficial tissues, thus these approaches are unable to sufficiently evaluate the biological effects of solar near-infrared that reaches human tissue. We have elucidated that near-infrared (1100 - 1800 nm together with a water-filter that excludes wavelengths 1400 - 1500 nm) non-thermally affects the skin into the deeper tissues. The biological effects of near-infrared have both beneficial applications and deleterious effects. Near-infrared induces collagen and elastin stimulation, which achieves skin rejuvenation and skin tightening, and induces long-lasting vasodilation that may prevent vasospasm and be beneficial for ischemic disorders. Near-infrared also relaxes and weakens dystonic and hypertrophic muscles to reduce wrinkles and myalgia. Nearinfrared is an essential tool in cancer detection and imaging, and induces drastic non-thermal DNA damage of mitotic cells, which may be beneficial

Protection from Near-Infrared to Prevent Skin Damage  [PDF]
Yohei Tanaka, Lisa Gale
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2015.54010
Abstract: Over half of the solar energy consists of near-infrared, and in addition to natural near-infrared, humans are increasingly exposed to artificial near-infrared from electrical appliances. Thus, we are exposed to tremendous amounts of near-infrared. Despite the wide prevalence of a variety of ultraviolet blocking materials, the necessity to protect against near-infrared has not been well recognized. To clarify the necessity to protect against near-infrared, we assessed cell viability of human fibroblast cells after water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared (1100 - 1800 nm together with a water-filter that excludes wavelengths 1400 - 1500 nm) treatment using 2 sets of transparent polycarbonate plates, one to block ultraviolet and the other to block both ultraviolet and near-infrared. The cell viability was significantly decreased after 10 rounds of near-infrared irradiation at 20 J/cm2 in near-infrared treated cells without a protective polycarbonate plate and near-infrared treated cells using the polycarbonate plate to block only ultraviolet. Assuming that the cell viability of the non-irradiated control to be 100, the cell viability of the near-infrared treated cells without any protection was 0.2. The cell viability of the near-infrared treated cells with the polycarbonate plate to block only ultraviolet was 0.3, whereas both ultraviolet and near-infrared protected cells retained a viability of 85.1. The results of this study indicate that protection from not only ultraviolet but also near-infrared should be considered to prevent skin damage.
Is Iron-Chelation Therapy Useful in Persons with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Receive?  [PDF]
Chaim Hershko, Robert Peter Gale
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2011.11002
Abstract: Iron overload in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) results from multiple RBC-transfusions and inappropriate increased iron absoption associated with ineffective erythropoiesis. Data from hereditary iron-loading anemias indicate long-term consequences of iron toxicity are preventable and potentially reversible by effective iron-chelation therapy (ICT). There is increasing interest in using ICT in persons with MDS because of the recent introduction of orally effective iron-chelators which are suitable for older persons, (1-4). Ideally, evidence supporting the benefit of ICT in MDS should be evidenced-based, especially data from randomized trials showing better survival and, in exceptional cases, improved heart function . Such data are lacking. Nevertheless, it is possible to rely on the extensive data from trials of ICT in persons with thalassemia and to use well-defined predictors of increased risks of life-threatening complications to identify persons with MDS most likely to benefit from iron-chelating therapy.
On the Nonlinear Theory of Micromorphic Thermoelastic Solids
C. Gale
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/415304
Abstract: This work aims to study some dynamical problems in the framework of nonlinear theory of micromorphic thermoelastic solids. First, the continuous dependence of smooth admissible thermodynamic processes upon initial state and supply terms is investigated in the region of state space where the internal energy is a convex function and the elastic material behaves as a definite conductor of heat. Then, a uniqueness result is demonstrated. 1. Introduction Motivated by experimental studies, various continuous models of deformable bodies have been proposed in literature in order to describe the thermomechanical behavior of media with microstructure. In the micromorphic theory introduced by Eringen and ?uhubi [1] and Eringen [2], a material body is envisioned as a collection of a large number of deformable particles (subcontinua or microcontinua). Each particle possesses finite size and directions representing its microstructure. The microdeformation gives rise to extra degrees of freedom. Thus, the particle has nine independent degrees of freedom describing both rotations and stretches, in addition to the three classical translational degrees of freedom of its center. Many deformable solids point to the necessity for the incorporation of micromotions into mechanics. Porous solids with deformable grains and pores, composites, polymers with deformable molecules, crystals, solids with microcracks, dislocation and disclinations, and biological tissues (bones and muscles) are just a few examples of deformable solids which require the degrees of freedom given by the micromorphic theory. As a consequence, the micromorphic mechanics is the subject of detailed studies both from theoretical and practical reasons. In the linear context, uniqueness theorems have been proved by Soós [3] and Ie?an [4], variational principles have been established by Maugin [5] and Nappa [6], applications to earthquake problems have been suggested by Teisseyre [7], Dresen et al. [8], and Teisseyre et al. [9], plane harmonic waves have been studied by Eringen [2], reciprocal and existence theorems have been demonstrated by Ie?an [4], and material constants for isotropic materials have been determined by Chen and Lee [10]. On the other hand, the theory has been generalized to mixtures of micromorphic materials by Twiss and Eringen [11, 12], to higher-grade materials by Eringen [13], and to electromagnetic micromorphic thermoelastic solids by Eringen [14]. Moreover, the constitutive theory of micromorphic thermoplasticity has been formulated by Lee and Chen [15], the concept of material forces
A Mixture Theory for Micropolar Thermoelastic Solids
C. Gale
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/90672
Abstract: We derive a nonlinear theory of heat-conducting micropolar mixtures in Lagrangian description. The kinematics, balance laws, and constitutive equations are examined and utilized to develop a nonlinear theory for binary mixtures of micropolar thermoelastic solids. The initial boundary value problem is formulated. Then, the theory is linearized and a uniqueness result is established.
Lower Oligocene non-geniculate coralline red algal (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) assemblage from Polj ica pri Podnartu (Upper Carniola, Slovenia)
Luka Gale
Geologija , 2008,
Abstract: The Lower Oligocene Gornji Grad beds from Polj{ica pri Podnartu consist of marly limestone, mudstone, several layers of limestones and two layers of sandstones, and were deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp.Especially the limestones contain rich fossil fauna and non-geniculate coralline red algae. These were systematicallycollected from four horizons and researched in thin sections under an optical microscope. Genera Lithoporella,Neogoniolithon, Spongites, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum and Spongites were recognized. Surface area for each genus was calculated and the differences in the coralline assemblages in the four horizons were analysed. Thecorallines originate from two source areas: sandy-muddy bottom of a shallow marine environment, and small coral bioherms with its encrusters.
Rhaetian foraminiferal assemblage from the Dachstein Limestone of Mt. Begunj ica (Ko uta Unit, eastern Southern Alps)
Luka Gale
Geologija , 2012,
Abstract: Mt. Begunj ica (Karavanke Mts., northern Slovenia) structurally belongs to the Ko uta Unit (eastern SouthernAlps). The Dachstein Limestone, building the northern side of the mountain and its main ridge, was depositedon the Julian Carbonate Platform, while grey and red nodular Jurassic limestones of the southern slope representsedimentation on the Julian High. The massive Dachstein Limestone contains a rich assemblage of benthic foraminifera.Typical representatives of the reef and back-reef area were recognized. The age of the assemblage isdated as Rhaetian, based on the co-presence of species with a Norian and Rhaetian time span, such as Galeanellatollmanni, “Sigmoilina” schaeferae, Alpinophragmium perforatum, Aulotortus tumidus, Variostoma catilliforme,Variostoma cochlea and Variostoma helicta, together with the Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Involutina turgida.
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